Research highlights

  • In our meta-analysis (published in European Economic Review), we synthesise a quasi-exhaustive register of correspondence audit experiments in hiring published between 2005 to 2020. We show that hiring discrimination is similarly severe for candidates with disabilities, older age, and less physical attractiveness as for those with distinct racial or ethnic characteristics. Older candidates face more discrimination in Europe than in the United States. We find no clear evidence of decreasing discrimination over time.

  • In an experimental study (published in Computers in Human Behavior: Artificial Humans), I explore whether OpenAI’s GPT-3.5 displays ethnic or gender bias in job applicant screening using an audit approach. I show that GPT’s evaluations are influenced by ethnic cues, with some evidence for a gender–ethnicity interaction. The chatbot produces stereotyped output as humans would, e.g. favouring females as clothing sellers or ethnic minorities for jobs with poor working conditions.

  • In our contextual study of hiring discrimination (published in Labour Economics), we empirically test theoretically linked moderators of discrimination. We observe a distinct role of the organisation in shaping hiring discrimination, with ethnic minorities facing less discrimination when applying to non-profits or large organisations. We also find some evidence that hiring discrimination rises in jobs with more colleague interaction or less shortage.

Publication overview

The condensed publication overview* below was taken directly from my Google Scholar profile on 01 June 2024.

Title Authors Source Year Citations
Peer-reviewed Publications
Computer says ‘no’: Exploring systemic bias in ChatGPT using an audit approach L Lippens Computers in Human Behavior: Artificial Humans
[100054]
2024 2
The state of hiring discrimination: A meta-analysis of (almost) all recent correspondence experiments L Lippens, S Vermeiren, S Baert European Economic Review
[151, 104315]
2023 90
Beyond the hype: (How) are work regimes associated with job burnout? K du Bois, P Sterkens, L Lippens, S Baert, E Derous International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
[20 (4), 3331]
2023 5
Understanding ethnic hiring discrimination: A contextual analysis of experimental evidence L Lippens, A Dalle, F D'hondt, PP Verhaeghe, S Baert Labour Economics
[85, 102453]
2023 7
Een risicoanalyse van gecomprimeerde werkschema’s in de federale arbeidsdeal K du Bois, C Rooman, P Sterkens, L Lippens, S Baert, E Derous Over.Werk
[33 (2), 56-65]
2023 0
Ethnic discrimination on paper: Uncovering realtors’ willingness to discriminate with mystery mails A Ghekiere, L Lippens, S Baert, PP Verhaeghe Applied Economics Letters
[30 (9), 1235–1238]
2022 7
Is labour market discrimination against ethnic minorities better explained by taste or statistics? A systematic review of the empirical evidence L Lippens, S Baert, A Ghekiere, PP Verhaeghe, E Derous Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
[48 (17), 4243–4276]
2022 58
The COVID-19 crisis and telework: A research survey on experiences, expectations and hopes E Moens, L Lippens, P Sterkens, J Weytjens, S Baert The European Journal of Health Economics
[23, 729–753]
2021 463
How do employees think the COVID-19 crisis will affect their careers? L Lippens, E Moens, P Sterkens, J Weytjens, S Baert PLOS ONE
[16 (5), e0246899]
2021 176
Loss aversion in taste-based employee discrimination: Evidence from a choice experiment L Lippens, S Baert, E Derous Economics Letters
[208]
2021 7
Discussion Papers
Labour market disadvantages of citizens with a migration background in Belgium: A systematic review L Devos, L Lippens, D Lens, F Rycx, M Volral, S Baert IZA Discussion Paper 2024 1
Speeding up on the learning curve: The evaluation of telework following a surge in telework experience E Moens, L Lippens, L D’hert, S Baert Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent … 2024 0
Nothing really matters: Evaluating demand-side moderators of age discrimination in hiring A Dalle, L Lippens, S Baert IZA Discussion Paper 2023 0
An Arab, an Asian, and a Black guy walk into a job interview: ethnic stigma in hiring after controlling for social class H Van Borm, L Lippens, S Baert IZA Discussion Paper 2022 3
Selecting names for experiments on ethnic discrimination S Baert, L Lippens, H Van Borm IZA Discussion Paper 2022 2

*The full overview is available from my Google Scholar profile. The value in the Citations column also includes citations of previous versions of the article (e.g. citations of a discussion paper later published in a peer-reviewed journal). Clicking the citation value will take you directly to the Google Scholar entry.

Online profiles

You can find more detailed, up-to-date information about my research via my Google Scholar, ResearchGate or ORCID profile.



This page was last updated on 01 June 2024.